Anyone familiar with brass band music knows that the tuba and baritone make up the heart of the ensemble.
The trumpets and cornets may be the most visible, but their sound would be hollow without a strong low brass foundation. When it comes to the tuba and the baritone, what is the difference?
The primary difference between tuba and baritone is the size. Tubas are much larger. You can see this with just a glance.
By learning a few basics, you will even be able to hear the difference without any special training.
Let’s start by exploring the history of each instrument and how this history led to the development of the modern tuba and baritone.
Table of Contents
- Sound Production
- Choosing between the tuba and the baritone
- Instrument history
The tuba and baritone are similar in appearance. Both consist primarily of metallic tubing that is wound into a size that can be easily held against the body.
The tube is widest at the bell, which flares out into the characteristic horn shape that is recognizable to most audiences. The narrowest part of the instrument is the lead pipe.
For both instruments, a mouthpiece must be placed in the lead pipe to produce a proper sound.
A tuba is much larger than a baritone. An exact comparison is difficult to make since tubas come in many sizes.
In general, a tuba will appear to be about four times larger than a baritone. Much more material is needed to produce a tuba, so they are much, much heavier than a baritone.
Many baritone players can perform standing up, but this is nearly impossible for a tuba player.
Both the tuba and the baritone also utilize a series of valves to produce changes in pitch. Baritones and tubas typically have between three and four valves. At first glance, a baritone may look just like a mini-tuba.
Based on their history and physical appearance, you might guess that the tuba has a much lower sound than the baritone. You would be correct!
The general range of the tuba is from D1 to F4 (from the lowest D on the modern piano, to the F above middle C). The baritone cannot play so low, but its upper register far surpasses the tuba’s.
The typical range of the modern baritone runs from E2 to B-flat4, though skilled musicians can play beyond that range. The addition of a fourth valve allows some models to play this extended range with ease.
The sound of the tuba
Because of its low sound, the tuba is considered the foundation of the brass band. It produces the sonic warmth necessary for a band to sound rich and complex.
Without the tuba to round out the sound, a brass band will have none of the depth that many concert and parade-goers have come to expect.
The qualities of the tuba’s sound can be described in several ways:
The sound of the baritone
The baritone fills the important role of the tenor voice in many instrumental ensembles. Without a tenor voice, the bass would be too disconnected from the upper voices.
Tenor instruments like the baritone, cello, tenor saxophone, and bass clarinet have great versatility. These instruments are equally prominent in solo and ensemble settings.
The timbre of the baritone, by contrast, could be described as:
As you can see, size, range, and tone quality (timbre) are the primary characteristics that distinguish the baritone and tuba. How does a musician produce a sound on these instruments?
This is an area in which there is little difference between the tuba and baritone. Both instruments utilize a cup-shaped mouthpiece as the primary means of moving air into the instrument. All members of the brass family require mouthpieces.
Once the mouthpiece is inserted into the leadpipe, the musician must produce a vibrating column of air. To produce the vibration, a tubist or baritone player must buzz their lips.
A buzz is created by engaging the set of facial muscles known as the embouchure. The corners of the lips as well as the muscles of the chin must work together to maintain the buzz.
A consistent buzz should allow the musician to produce the tones characteristic of each instrument.
The main difference between a tuba buzz and a baritone buzz is the size of the aperture. The aperture is simply the opening in the lips through which the air passes. A smaller aperture will produce a higher-pitched sound when buzzing into the mouthpiece.
Since the mouthpiece of the tuba is much larger, a tubist must use the entire surface of the lips to create the buzz, at least on the lower notes.
When it comes to the baritone, the musician will create a smaller aperture in the lips. Strong embouchure muscles are required to produce the controlled buzz necessary to produce a consistent sound on the instrument.
When it comes to sound production, the only real difference between tuba and baritone has to do with the size of the aperture required.
Choosing between the tuba and the baritone
Given their many similarities, it may be difficult to choose between these two instruments. Fortunately, if you know what you are looking for in an instrument, the choice is quite easy.
The baritone is widely considered to be the easiest brass instrument to learn. The size of the mouthpiece cup fits the lips more naturally than the tuba or even the trumpet.
Young musicians with shorter arms may struggle with the trombone’s long slide, but the baritone creates no such challenges. When played properly, the full weight of the baritone rests in the lap. Even young children can hold it with no problem.
The tuba, on the other hand, can present a significant challenge to the young player. Even when resting in the lap, some strength is required to support the instrument in a proper playing position. It can be difficult to press and hold the large valves for extended periods.
Additionally, individuals with smaller lips may struggle to produce a consistent sound, especially in the low register.
The smaller size of the baritone also makes it more portable. Even in its case, a baritone can be transported in a car or on a bus with relative ease. The size and weight of a tuba can make transportation very stressful and difficult.
A young tubist should have an instrument for home and an instrument at school.
If you are interested in the tuba, it may be a good idea to start with a baritone to get comfortable with the basics.
After a few months, if you are still committed, you can switch to the tuba. In fact, it is very common for tubists to double on the baritone.
Some orchestral pieces require the tubist to play the baritone, so a musician who can do both can be in high demand.
This is called “doubling” and it is very common among professional musicians.
The baritone is also a popular choice for trumpet players that want to expand their versatility. The trumpet requires a much smaller aperture, meaning that the trumpet player may naturally excel at playing in the baritone’s high range.
Trombone players also have great success on the baritone, since the aperture and embouchure for both instruments are identical.
The last thing to consider when trying to decide between the tuba and baritone is the kind of music you like to play. The tuba is commonly found in brass bands, concert bands, marching bands, and orchestras.
Baritones, on the other hand, are rarely used in the modern orchestra. In a country like the UK, which has a strong brass band culture, a good baritone player will have plenty of performance opportunities.
In the US, however, your options will be more limited.
The baritone, however, is more well-suited as a solo instrument. Tuba solos are far rarer in ensemble and chamber music settings.
The tuba and the baritone both emerged in the early 19th century. They have a much longer history going back thousands of years.
Learning the way these instruments are developed can help you better under their similarities and differences.
A shared history
The ancient Romans were big fans of brass music, and they used the word “tuba” to describe the lowest-pitched instruments in the brass family, just like we do today.
In fact, tuba means “tube” in Latin. Years went by, and the meaning of “tuba” was expanded to include all members of the brass instrument family.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, composers in Europe became interested in the possibilities of expanding the low range of the orchestra’s wind section.
Mozart and others wrote parts for the “serpent” a curved wind instrument that resembles an enormous snake.
It used a cup-shaped mouthpiece, and the player could change the pitch by covering the various tone holes with their fingers, like on a clarinet.
The serpent had many unfortunate drawbacks. Its tone was inconsistent, and its range was limited to only about two octaves.
French instrument maker Jean Hilaire Asté patented an improved version of the serpent in 1821. He called his invention the ophicleide, and it quickly replaced the serpent, which many composers and musicians believed to be old-fashioned.
The ophicleide used keys and tone holes similar to the saxophone and had a much more consistent tone than the serpent.
Popular composers like Felix Mendelssohn, Hector Berlioz, and Giacomo Meyerbeer all wrote parts for ophicleide in their orchestral music.
The first tuba
September 12th, 1835 was a momentous day for the development of the modern instruments we know today as the tuba and the baritone.
The first bass tuba was patented in Prussia (modern-day Germany) by Wilhelm Friedrich Wieprecht and Johann Gottfried Moritz. Their original design had five valves and was pitched in the key of F.
It is important to note that French instrument maker Adolphe Sax was also hard at work designing an alternative to the ophicleide at this time.
His family of saxhorns shared many characteristics with the Wieprecht-Moritz bass tuba. The mellow sound of the saxhorns became very popular and some elements of Sax’s design were incorporated into later models of the tuba.
The 19th-century saxhorns also had a profound influence on the development of the baritone, which was happening just as the tuba was gaining prominence.
Just three years after Wieprecht and Moritz patented their bass tuba, they collaborated again on a smaller, higher-pitched version called the tenor tuba. Their 1838 design was also improved upon by Sax and other instrument makers.
The development of the baritone is complex, and there is no single line of development that leads directly to the instrument we know today. Inventors in France, German, Austria, and England all created unique designs.
English brass band leaders often preferred instruments with narrower tubes because they produced a brighter sound. German and French composers preferred a mellower sound, so they chose instruments with wider tubing.
Descendants of these instruments are still popular today. In addition to the baritone horn, many low brass musicians perform on the mellower euphonium, while jazz musicians often prefer the fluegelhorn, a direct descendant of the saxhorn.
Now that we’ve explored the history, we can take a closer look at how the modern versions of the tuba and baritone compare.
Related: How Much Does A Tuba Cost?
The primary differences between the tuba and the baritone are:
- Musical versatility
The baritone is smaller, and its tenor range makes it well suited to both solo and ensemble playing. However, performance opportunities may be more limited, depending on where you live.
At the end of the day, it is best to go with the instrument that has the sound you find most pleasing. If you love the way it sounds, you will be much more likely to stick with it for years to come.