Woodwind Instruments List & Complete Guide

Pro Music Vault Home Woodwind Instruments List & Complete Guide

We’ve all heard about woodwind instruments and the way so many people appreciate the beautiful music they make.

Woodwind instruments along with percussion, strings, and brass make up orchestras, marching bands, military bands, and even rock and roll and contemporary music bands.

Several types of woodwind instruments will be discussed in this guide. First, we’ll find out how woodwind instruments work.

Secondly, we’ll explore further the different types of woodwind instruments, and then move on for a series of short narratives detailing the ten most popular woodwinds.

Lastly, we’ll take a look at what woodwind instruments are used in orchestras, and what part each instrument plays in making the orchestral performance a success.

Table of Contents

How Woodwind Instruments Work & Produce sound?

There are two types of woodwind instruments. They are flutes and reed instruments.

Flutes, or aerophones, are woodwind instruments in which air is blown into the instrument (usually by the player of the instrument) and exits through the body of the instrument to the end, making a unique sound.

There are holes all up and down the body of the flute, which when covered or uncovered manipulate and distort the air being blown into the flute, thus producing music.

Certain breathing techniques can be used to alter the sound made by the flute even further.

Diaphragmatic breathing is a method by which the player optimizes their air intake, thereby limiting the number of breaths taken while playing.

Circular breathing allows for constant uninterrupted sound by expelling air from the mouth using air stored in the cheeks, all the while simultaneously inhaling through the nose.

Reed instruments also make sounds when air blown into the resonator passes over the reed and cause the reed to vibrate, producing sound.

A reed is a thin rectangular piece of either cane or synthetic material which is inserted in the mouthpiece and held to the body of the instrument by a ligature on the side.

The sounds the woodwind instrument makes using a reed are also influenced by the number of holes in the body of the instrument and which holes are covered by either fingers or keys.

Another way sound on woodwind instruments is performed correctly is by the angle at which the instrument is positioned at the mouthpiece when played.

For instance, a clarinet is held at a 45-degree angle from the mouthpiece, whereas a saxophone is held straight out from the mouthpiece. A flute is positioned horizontally or sideways with the length of the instrument extending outwards.

Notes are formed by covering the holes on the clarinet or saxophone tube with either fingers or keys.

Holes on the tube vary the pitch as well when they are uncovered or covered by the flutist. Reeds must also be very well maintained or the tone will be affected.

Some reed instruments use double reeds, which are two reeds tied together.

Examples of double reed woodwind instruments are the oboe and the bassoon. The sound these double reed instruments make has a pronounced nasal sound which is hard to maintain once the sound is achieved.

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Different Types of Woodwind Instruments

As stated above, there are two types of woodwind instruments, flutes (aerophones) and reed instruments.

Within the flute woodwind family, there are certain variations such as the piccolo, the recorder, the Irish flute, and the fife.

These are reed-less instruments in which air produces sound when blown into the instrument. Holes in the side of the resonator work to produce different notes and pitches when covered or uncovered.

The flute is one of the earliest known instruments in the world, first being in existence about 40,000 years ago.

The recorder is another ancient woodwind instrument that has been documented to be in use as early as 1388 in England by the Earl of Derby, later known as King Henry IV.

There are three main types of flutes: the standard, the piccolo, and the harmony flutes.

The piccolo is a smaller version of the standard C flute, the word “piccolo” meaning small in Italian.

The pitch of the piccolo is the highest-pitched flute when played in the key of C, and remains an octave higher than the standard flute. When played loudly in its upper register, its sound can be described as high pitched or shrill.

When played in its middle register, the sound is more graceful, lovely, and clear.

Recorders are also dubbed internal duct flutes because the recorder is a flute with a whistle mouthpiece and the existence of a fipple.

A fipple is merely air blown across a hole. Flutes do not have fipples. The recorder also has a thumb hole for placement of the upper finger and 7 finger holes; 3 for the upper hand and 4 for the lower hand.

There are also 5 different types of recorders, ranging from a higher pitch in the smaller size instruments to a lower pitch in the larger ones. These 5 types are soprano, descant, treble, tenor, and bass.

Single and Double Reed Instruments

Reed instruments use either a single or double reed to make music.

Some of these woodwind instruments such as the clarinet are difficult to play and are recommended to be played by a professional or a more accomplished player.

If you play the bassoon or are interested in learning to play the bassoon, you will discover that most of the music written for the bassoon is in the bass and tenor clefs.

The saxophone is similar to the clarinet as they both use single reeds, but the sound they produce is quite different.

The saxophone is made of brass, which would indicate that not all woodwinds are always made of wood.

The saxophone body is cone-shaped and produces sound by controlling the tone holes along its body. The tone holes are closed by leather pads and they are connected to keys.

Today the saxophone is played frequently, not just in orchestra or concert venues, but also in rock, pop, and jazz music.

The oboe is a double-reed woodwind instrument that plays in the soprano or treble range.

The English horn, or cor anglais, is a part of the oboe family.

The oboe is a long instrument, roughly 2 feet long. The sound the oboe makes is lively and bright, making it a favorite among connoisseurs of woodwind music.

The top ten most popular woodwind instruments are as follows:

1. The Bassoon

The bassoon is a woodwind instrument that belongs to the double reed family. It has a long, cylindrical shape with a bell-like flare at the end, and is typically made of maple or other hardwoods. The bassoon is known for its distinctive, rich and dark sound that adds depth and complexity to orchestral pieces. It is used in a wide range of musical genres, from classical to jazz and pop.

Playing the bassoon requires a high level of skill, as the double reed requires precise control to produce a clear and stable sound. The reed is made from the dried and carved stems of the Arundo donax plant, and is carefully adjusted by the player to achieve the desired sound. The instrument also has a complex key system, which allows the player to produce different notes by opening and closing various holes along the length of the instrument.

Despite its challenges, the bassoon remains a popular instrument in the orchestral world, where it typically sits in the bass section and provides a supportive foundation for the other instruments. In addition to its role in orchestras, the bassoon is also a versatile solo instrument, with a repertoire of solo pieces that showcase its range and expressiveness.

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2. The Bagpipes

Bagpipes are a musical instrument that have been around for centuries and are still played today in many cultures all over the world. The bagpipes consist of a bag made from animal skin, usually a sheep or goat, a chanter which produces the melody, and a number of drones which produce a constant background note. The bag is filled with air from the player’s mouth or a small pump and then used to regulate the flow of air to the pipes.

Bagpipes have a unique sound that is easily recognizable and have been used in a variety of settings, from traditional folk music to military events. In Scotland, bagpipes are often associated with the Highlands and are played at traditional events like weddings and funerals. In other cultures, like those in eastern Europe and India, bagpipes are played at festivals and in religious ceremonies.

The sound of the bagpipes can be quite powerful, especially in large outdoor spaces. But despite the volume, they’re still loved by many.

[See our 2023 recommendations for beginner-friendly bagpipes.]

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3. The Clarinet

The clarinet is a musical instrument that has been around for centuries and is one of the most versatile instruments out there. It’s a single reed instrument that is made of wood or plastic and has a cylindrical bore. It’s played by buzzing your lips into the reed to produce sound and by pressing down the keys to change the pitch.

One of the great things about the clarinet is that it can be played in a variety of musical genres such as classical, jazz, and folk music. In classical music, the clarinet is often used as a solo instrument, but it also works well in orchestral settings. In jazz, the clarinet can be heard in swing and big band music, and it’s also a popular instrument in klezmer music.

The clarinet is a fun instrument to play, but it can be a bit tricky to get started. You need to learn how to produce a good sound, and it takes a while to get the fingerings down. But once you get the hang of it, it’s a truly rewarding instrument to play.

[Need a clarinet for marching band? See our 2023 recommendations.]

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4. The English Horn

The English horn is a double-reed instrument that looks like an oboe, but a little bit longer and curved at the bottom. It’s also a lot smoother sounding and more mellow than the oboe.

Now, where does the English horn come from? It’s believed to have originated in England (hence the name) in the late 17th century, but it quickly became popular in continental Europe as well. It’s often used in orchestral pieces to add a rich, warm sound to the mix, and it’s also a staple in some classical operas. If you’re lucky enough to see an English horn in action, you’ll be able to tell right away that it’s an important part of the ensemble.

Finally, let’s talk about how hard it is to play the English horn. Like any instrument, it takes practice, patience, and a good teacher. But the English horn can be especially challenging because of the double reeds. You have to get both reeds vibrating in perfect harmony with each other, and if you’re not careful, they’ll start to go their own separate ways. But when you do get it right, it’s one of the most beautiful sounds you’ll hear.

5. Flute

The flute is a versatile and beautiful instrument that has been around for centuries. Whether you’re a seasoned flutist or just starting out, there’s something about the flute that draws you in. With its sweet, airy sound, the flute has the ability to transport you to another place, to express the emotions that words can’t quite capture.

The flute is one of the most accessible instruments out there. Unlike other instruments like the guitar or piano, you don’t need a lot of accessories to get started. Just a flute and a mouthpiece, and you’re good to go! It’s also an instrument that can be played solo or in an ensemble, so there’s always room for growth and improvement.

One of the best things about the flute is its versatility. You can play classical pieces, folk tunes, and even rock and roll with this instrument. It’s also a popular instrument for jazz and world music, which is a testament to its adaptability.

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6. Organ

The organ is a musical instrument that’s been around for centuries. It’s pretty much the king of the keyboard world, and it’s not hard to see why. It can produce a whole range of different sounds and is often used in churches and other religious settings, but it’s also used in classical and pop music too. The sound is made by air being blown through pipes, which are controlled by the player using the keyboard.

If you’ve ever seen a big organ, you’ll know that it’s a sight to behold. Some organs can have hundreds of pipes and a whole bunch of different buttons and knobs to play with. It’s not for the faint-hearted, though. It takes years of practice to become a good organ player, but if you’re up for the challenge, it’s well worth the effort.

When you’re playing an organ, you’re not just limited to playing one sound at a time like you would on a piano. You can play multiple sounds and even layer them on top of each other. And if you want to add a bit of drama to your performance, you can even use the foot pedals to play the bass notes. The organ is the ultimate multitasker of the musical world.

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7. Oboe

The oboe is a beautiful, complex, and mysterious instrument. It’s the closest thing you’ll get to a siren song in an orchestra, and the fact that it’s got an English name that sounds like a French word only adds to the allure.

An oboe is a double-reed woodwind instrument, which means that the sound is produced by two blades of cane vibrating against each other. It’s got a conical bore and a curved shape that gives it that signature, reedy sound. The oboe is usually the first melody instrument you’ll hear in an orchestra, and it’s often used in classical music and opera to set the mood.

The oboe is sometimes called the “double-edged sword of the orchestra,” and with good reason. It’s got a reputation for being one of the most difficult instruments to play, and the reeds can pose a serious challenge until a new player masters the instrument.

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8. Piccolo

The piccolo is a small but mighty instrument that has been around since the 18th century. It’s the smallest member of the flute family, and it’s also one of the highest-pitched instruments in the orchestral world. Despite its size, the piccolo packs a big punch, and it’s not uncommon to see it leading the charge in a big orchestral piece.

Piccolos are typically made from a combination of silver and nickel, which gives them a bright and piercing sound. They’re usually tuned to the key of C, which means that they play an octave higher than most other instruments. This makes the piccolo an important player in the orchestral world, as it provides a lot of the high-end detail in a piece of music.

Although the piccolo is small, it’s not an easy instrument to play. It takes a lot of control and precision to play the piccolo well, but like many of the other instruments on this list it’s a rewarding experience to master the instrument.

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9. Recorder

This humble instrument has been around for centuries and is still a staple in schools and music programs all over the world. The recorder is a simple wind instrument that produces a clear, flute-like sound. It’s made from a single piece of wood or plastic and has a range of about two octaves. And the best part? It’s cheap and easy to learn, making it a popular choice for beginners of all ages.

While the recorder is often used as an introductory instrument for kids, it’s also used by professional musicians in all sorts of styles, from classical to folk. The recorder has a rich history, and was even popular in medieval times, where it was used in chamber and court music. Who knew a plastic flute could be so sophisticated?

The recorder is easy to learn, versatile, and can be a lot of fun. And don’t worry, if you’re not a fan of the recorder’s traditional sound, there are plenty of variations to choose from, including sopranino, alto, tenor, and bass recorders.

[See our 2023 recommendations for alto recorders.]

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10. Saxophone

The saxophone is a beautiful instrument that has been around for over 150 years. It was invented by Adolphe Sax in the mid-19th century and quickly became a staple in jazz, swing, and big band music. To this day, the saxophone remains one of the most popular instruments in the world, and its distinctive sound has made it a staple in countless musical genres.

When it comes to playing the sax, it’s all about the breath control and the fingerwork. It takes time and practice to be able to produce those smooth, soulful sounds that make the sax such an iconic instrument.

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Woodwind Instruments Used In Orchestras

Woodwind instruments usually have a supporting role in the orchestral score. They provide harmonies and countermelodies or are used to merely double the string parts.

The woodwind section sits in the middle with the stringed instruments in front.

One of the first and most well-known woodwind instruments played in the orchestra is the flute. There are 2 to 4 flutists In the orchestra, and these flutists will usually be found playing the melody

A piccolo will also sometimes be required in an orchestra if the piece is written with the high piping sound the piccolo is famous for.

Because the size of the piccolo is 1/2 the size of the flute, typically one of the flutists in the orchestra will also play the piccolo.

Another woodwind instrument used in orchestras is the oboe. It is a double-reed instrument with a wide range of sounds from foreboding to warm and sweet.

There are 2 to 4 oboes in an orchestra and one of the duties of the oboist is to tune the orchestra before performing.

The English Horn, which is part of the Oboe family, is sometimes used in orchestras if the piece written requires it.

Since it is bigger than an oboe and a little wider, it has a lower pitch range. One of the oboe players in the orchestra will also play the English Horn if needed.

One of the most popular instruments in the woodwind family that is frequently used in orchestras is the clarinet.

Two to four clarinets play both melodies and harmonies with the lower notes resembling dark, or troubling sounds and the higher notes favoring bright, cheery, and upbeat sounds.

Last but not least is the Bassoon. Since the sound of the bassoon is quite remarkable, there are usually two to four bassoonists in the orchestra at one time.

The range of a bassoon is much like a cello, and the bassoon typically plays the lower harmonies, and occasionally the low notes in a melody.

Full Woodwind Instrument List:

The following is a list of common and uncommon woodwind instruments:

  • Alghoza
  • Alto clarinet
  • Alto flute
  • Alto saxophone
  • Bagpipes
  • Bansuri
  • Baritone saxophone
  • Bass clarinet
  • Bass flute
  • Bass saxophone
  • Bassoon
  • Bawu
  • Chi
  • Clarinet
  • Contra-alto clarinet
  • Contra-alto flute
  • Contrabass clarinet
  • Contrabass flute
  • Crumhorn
  • Dizi
  • Dongdi
  • Double clarinet
  • English horn (cor anglais)
  • Fife
  • Gogona
  • Guan
  • Harmonica
  • Harmonium
  • Hichiriki
  • Horagai
  • Hornpipe
  • Irish flute
  • Koudi
  • Kuzhal
  • Mabu
  • Mangtong
  • Mashak
  • Mezzo-soprano saxophone
  • Morsing
  • Mukhavina
  • Nadaswaram
  • Native American flute
  • Nohkan
  • Oboe
  • Ocarina
  • Organ pipe
  • Paixiao
  • Pan flute
  • Pepa
  • Piccolo
  • Pungi
  • Recorder
  • Ryuteki
  • Saxophone
  • Shakuhachi
  • Shehnai
  • Shinobue
  • Sho
  • Shruti box
  • Shuangguan
  • Soprano clarinet
  • Soprano saxophone
  • Sruti upanga
  • Sundari
  • Suona
  • Tangmuri
  • Tenor saxophone
  • Titti
  • Venu
  • Xiao
  • Xindi
  • Yue
  • Zhuxun


What are the different types of woodwind instruments?

The main types of woodwind instruments include flutes, oboes, clarinets, saxophones, bassoons, and recorders.

What is the difference between a flute and a piccolo?

A flute is a larger instrument with a lower pitch, while a piccolo is a smaller instrument with a higher pitch.

How do you play a clarinet?

To play a clarinet, you place your lips on the mouthpiece and blow air into the reed while pressing the keys to produce different notes.

What is the difference between a saxophone and a clarinet?

A saxophone is a larger instrument with a brass body and a single reed, while a clarinet is a smaller instrument with a wooden body and a double reed.

How do you clean a saxophone?

To clean a saxophone, use a cleaning cloth and cleaning solution to wipe down the body, mouthpiece, and keys.

What is the difference between a bassoon and a contrabassoon?

A bassoon is a larger instrument with a lower pitch, while a contrabassoon is a smaller instrument with a higher pitch.

How do you play a recorder?

To play a recorder, you place your mouth on the mouthpiece and blow air into the instrument while pressing the keys to produce different notes.

What is the difference between a flute and an ocarina?

A flute is a wind instrument that produces sound by blowing air over a hole in the body, while an ocarina is a wind instrument that produces sound by blowing air into a chamber.

How do you care for a woodwind instrument?

To care for a woodwind instrument, clean it regularly, store it properly, and have it serviced by a professional when necessary.

What is the best woodwind instrument for a beginner?

The best woodwind instrument for a beginner depends on the individual’s musical interests and ability, but the recorder is often recommended as a starting point.